John McDonald-Wharry completed a doctoral research project in chemistry and engineering at the University of Waikato which was started in 2010. This project involved developing structural models for char chemistry, researching techniques for the characterization of biomass chars, and the creation of composite materials from carbonized herbaceous leaf fibers. This research also involved chemical analysis of other carbonaceous materials such as activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, carbon fibers and graphites. In 2014, John was able to apply biochar screening and composite formulation know-how from PhD work to create a range of char-based composites from pine biochars produced by Massey University’s New Zealand Biochar Research Centre. John is currently employed on an “Additive manufacturing and 3D and/or 4D printing of bio-composites” project involving composite formulation design and material science research.